CDR-1367: SR Set: Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

On June 30, 2015 a 'leap second' was added to make up the difference between International Atomic Time and Universal Time (or Astronomical Time). This event prompted us to explore the idea of time as it is represented visually in the Scholars Resource archive. The measurement of time began with the use of shadows cast by the sun as in sun dials or shadow clocks (among the earliest being ancient Egyptian obelisks). Over the centuries more elaborate instruments such as clocks, astrolabes, armillary spheres, etc. were developed particularly in pursuit of mapping celestial bodies for navigational purposes. The measurement of time remains an important element in navigation, be it for crossing the high seas in1492, navigating our quotidian life today, or traveling to the dwarf planet Pluto in the twenty-first century.



Ard-35652
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Title: Invalides: Hôtel des Invalides
Creator(s): Libéral Bruand
Jules Hardouin Mansart
Description: Court, detail of the upper colonnade of the south pediment with sundials. The sundial declination lines extend into the pillar beneath the spandrel.
Vendor: Archivision, Inc.
S2C-0082
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Title: Ontario Agricultural College
Description: sun dial; 75th anniversary
Vendor: Hartill Art Associates
SUk-0119
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Title: Dolphin sundial
Vendor: Hartill Art Associates
Dva-4838
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Title: Putto with Skull, Rose and Hourglass
Creator(s): Abraham Bloemaert
Vendor: Davis Art Images
Mid-0236a
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: Full view of Tomb from front center
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Mid-0241
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: Detail of skeletal Death with Hourglass raised.
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Mid-0242
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: detail of hand holding hourglass
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Mid-0243
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: detail of skeleton holding up drapery
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Mid-0243a
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: detail of Truth and Death from the side, with hourglass
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Bos-34839
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Title: Tsuba in the form of a kontengi astrolabe with a moving central section
Creator(s): Myochin School
Vendor: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Kir-10043
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Title: Fez: Bou Inania Medersa
Description: Close oblique view of remnants of Water Clock structure.
Vendor: Inter-American Institute/Dr. James Bartholomay Kiracofe
Kir-10044
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Title: Fez: Bou Inania Medersa
Description: Detail: woodwork of Water Clock.
Vendor: Inter-American Institute/Dr. James Bartholomay Kiracofe
Kir-10046
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Title: Fez: Bou Inania Medersa
Description: Detail: close up of woodwork of Water Clock.
Vendor: Inter-American Institute/Dr. James Bartholomay Kiracofe
Lgk-0001
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Title: Astronomical Clock
Description: view upward of 24-hour dial of clock with part of zodiac circle below
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Lgk-0002
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Title: Astronomical Clock
Description: view upward of 24 hour dial of clock
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Lgk-0003
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Title: Astronomical Clock
Description: detail: zodiac calender circle
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Lgk-0004
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Title: Astronomical Clock
Description: detail of zodiac circle with figures around it
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Lgk-0005
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Title: Astronomical Clock
Description: close detail of decorations on zodiac circle
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Met-06779
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Title: Astronomical Table Clock
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Met-05342
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Title: Mirror Clock
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Msw-0001
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Title: Table Clock
Creator(s): Jost Bürgi
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Met-3329
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Title: Longcase clock with calendrical, lunar, and tidal indications
Creator(s): Thomas Tompion
Jasper Braem
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Met-1756
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Title: Mantel Clock (Pendule de chiminée),
Creator(s): Joseph Baumhauer
Julien Le Roy
Laurent Guiard
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Met-2208
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Title: Clock
Creator(s): David Roentgen
Description: Front
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Met-2691
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Title: Clock (Pendule)
Creator(s): Chantilly Porcelain Manufactory
Benjamin Gray
Justin Vuilliamy
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Met-3613
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Title: Tall Clock
Creator(s): John Townsend
William Tomlinson
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Met-4025
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Title: nécessaire (one of a pair)
Creator(s): John Barbot
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Met-05854
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Title: Clock
Creator(s): Jean-Philippe Gosselin
Jean-Joseph de Saint Germain
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Tol-00982
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Title: Pagoda Clock
Vendor: Toledo Museum of Art
Dva-24271
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Title: Mantle clock
Creator(s): Griffith, Owen
Vendor: Davis Art Images
Met-1796
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Title: Clock
Creator(s): Simon Willard
Description: Overall, front
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Met-2000
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Title: Tall Clock
Vendor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Dva-17432
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Title: Cockatoo Clock
Creator(s): Lanyon, Ellen
Vendor: Davis Art Images
Dva-19214
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Title: Visitronic Digital Alarm Clock
Creator(s): Littman, Ludwig (designer)
Braun AG (maker)
Vendor: Davis Art Images
Dva-19305
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Title: Wall Clock
Creator(s): Nelson, George Associates (designer)
Vitra (manufacturer)
Description: side view
Vendor: Davis Art Images
Dva-19366
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Title: Cifra 3 Clock
Creator(s): Valle, Gino (designer)
Solari Udine S.p.A. (manufacturer)
Vendor: Davis Art Images
Dva-19392
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Title: Walter Wayle Wall Clock
Creator(s): Philippe Starck
Alessi S.p.A. (manufacturer)
Vendor: Davis Art Images
Dva-22995
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Title: Untitled (Perfect Lovers)
Creator(s): Felix Gonzalez-Torres
Vendor: Davis Art Images
Arc-6378
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Title: Chartres Cathedral
Creator(s): unknown
Vendor: Archivision, Inc.
Kir-45975
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Title: Chartres Cathedral
Description: Looking up at clock, north façade
Vendor: Inter-American Institute/Dr. James Bartholomay Kiracofe