CDR-1367: SR Set: Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

On June 30, 2015 a 'leap second' was added to make up the difference between International Atomic Time and Universal Time (or Astronomical Time). This event prompted us to explore the idea of time as it is represented visually in the Scholars Resource archive. The measurement of time began with the use of shadows cast by the sun as in sun dials or shadow clocks (among the earliest being ancient Egyptian obelisks). Over the centuries more elaborate instruments such as clocks, astrolabes, armillary spheres, etc. were developed particularly in pursuit of mapping celestial bodies for navigational purposes. The measurement of time remains an important element in navigation, be it for crossing the high seas in1492, navigating our quotidian life today, or traveling to the dwarf planet Pluto in the twenty-first century. (August 2015)



Ard-35641
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Title: Invalides: Hôtel des Invalides
Creator(s): Libéral Bruand
Jules Hardouin Mansart
Description: Court, view looking north
Vendor: Archivision, Inc.
Ard-35642
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Title: Invalides: Hôtel des Invalides
Creator(s): Libéral Bruand
Jules Hardouin Mansart
Description: Court, north entry portico
Vendor: Archivision, Inc.
Ard-35650
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Title: Invalides: Hôtel des Invalides
Creator(s): Libéral Bruand
Jules Hardouin Mansart
Description: Court, view of the west lateral pediment. The declination lines of the dual sundials end with signs of the Zodiac.
Vendor: Archivision, Inc.
Ard-35652
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Title: Invalides: Hôtel des Invalides
Creator(s): Libéral Bruand
Jules Hardouin Mansart
Description: Court, detail of the upper colonnade of the south pediment with sundials. The sundial declination lines extend into the pillar beneath the spandrel.
Vendor: Archivision, Inc.
XIR-210497
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Title: Vanitas with a Sundial
Creator(s): French School
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Bal-58426
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Title: The Garden Path
Creator(s): Ernest Walbourn
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Bal-56844
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Title: Washing day
Creator(s): English School
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Bal-63547
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Title: Scott's compass, thermometer, sundial, barometer and altitude scale used on Antarctic expedition
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
S2C-0082
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Title: Ontario Agricultural College
Description: sun dial; 75th anniversary
Vendor: Hartill Art Associates
SUk-0119
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Title: Dolphin sundial
Vendor: Hartill Art Associates
Bal-67042
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Title: Sandglass
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-136795
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Title: Vanitas Still Life with a Tulip, Skull and Hour-Glass
Creator(s): Phillippe de Champaigne
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Dva-4838
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Title: Putto with Skull, Rose and Hourglass
Creator(s): Abraham Bloemaert
Vendor: Davis Art Images
XIR-160470
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Title: Vanitas
Creator(s): Simon Renard de Saint-André
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XMB-172289
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Title: Vanitas
Creator(s): Simon Renard de Saint-André
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Mid-0236a
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: Full view of Tomb from front center
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Mid-0241
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: Detail of skeletal Death with Hourglass raised.
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Mid-0242
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: detail of hand holding hourglass
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Mid-0243
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: detail of skeleton holding up drapery
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
Mid-0243a
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Title: Tomb of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (b. Siena, 237th Pope, r.1655-67)
Creator(s): Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Description: detail of Truth and Death from the side, with hourglass
Vendor: Saskia, Ltd.
BAL-004643
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Title: Design for Frommes Calendar, for 14th Exhibition of Vienna Secession
Creator(s): Kolo Moser
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-188725
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Title: Armillary sphere
Creator(s): French School
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-166572
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Title: Armillary Sphere of Copernican System, engraved by Gerard Jean Baptiste Scotin (1671-1716)
Creator(s): Bernard Picart
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-213176
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Title: Astronomical instruments at Imperial Observatory, Peking, China
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Bal-65462
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Title: Frontispiece to 'A Plain Treatise of the First Principles of Cosmographie' by Thomas Blundeville
Creator(s): English School
Description: black and white photo
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Bal-63698
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Title: Reverse of a Moorish astrolabe
Creator(s): Spanish School
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XZL-151817
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Title: Astrolabe for calculating horoscopes, European
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-165161
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Title: Ms 320 Fol.192 Heavens, from 'De Natura rerum' by Thomas van Cantimpre (1201-72)
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-158206
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Title: Astrolabe
Creator(s): Abu Bakr Ibn Jusuf
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-097595
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Title: Development of Mariner's Astrolabe and Discovery of America by Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) plate 19 from 'Nova Reperta' (New Discoveries) engraved by Jan Collaert (1566-1628)
Creator(s): Stradanus
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-158664
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Title: Astrolabe
Creator(s): French School
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Bos-34839
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Title: Tsuba in the form of a kontengi astrolabe with a moving central section
Creator(s): Myochin School
Vendor: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Bal-61586
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Title: The Jackstaff
Creator(s): English School
Justin Winsor
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-201685
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Title: Moorish astrolabe, from Cordoba
Creator(s): Spanish School
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Bal-61651
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Title: Copy of a Self Portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus
Creator(s): Nicolaus Copernicus
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-217698
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Title: Old clepsydras, illustration from a copperplate engraving
Creator(s): French School
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-180688
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Title: Hourly lamp
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
XIR-182444
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Title: Automata (Book of knowledge of ingenious mechanical devices)
Description: Water clock with automated figures
Vendor: Bridgeman Education
Kir-10043
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Title: Fez: Bou Inania Medersa
Description: Close oblique view of remnants of Water Clock structure.
Vendor: Inter-American Institute/Dr. James Bartholomay Kiracofe
Kir-10044
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Title: Fez: Bou Inania Medersa
Description: Detail: woodwork of Water Clock.
Vendor: Inter-American Institute/Dr. James Bartholomay Kiracofe